TEACHING GRAMMAR: THE PRESENTATION STAGE
Goal: to get you to recognize some techniques to present a grammar point.
Presenting New Grammar
- Complete the “steps” and “activities” while yo are observing. Complete the “Goal” afterwards with a partner.
- To set a scene for the lesson
- To help students practice the new structure and to check new vocabulary
- To increase students’ vocabulary
- Pre-teaching vocabulary
||- Elicit new vocabulary techniques
- Rub out and Remember
- Student copy
- To help students “discover” new language in context
- To make the language real
- To motivate students
- Present the target structure
||- Elicit target language or new structure
- Say the module sentence 3 times
- Ask students to repeat chorally and individually
- Check forms, uses, pronunciation, meaning
- Ask students to copy
- To know the students’ knowledge
- To help students discover the new language by themselves
- To get students to prove they understand
- To make learning active, not passive learning
- To get students to learn grammar communicatively through understanding meaning and use, not just form.
||- Ask a lot of questions.
- Get student to copy
- B. In groups, discuss the following questions.
- What did the teacher do to check students’ comprehension of new language? Why?
- How many things did the teacher check about the new language? What are they?
- Did the teacher check one thing at a time? Why?
- What kinds of questions did the teacher ask
- When teacher is sure the students understand the new language should he or she ask the checking questions again? Why and why not?
- Can the teacher use checking techniques throughout the lesson?
- Does checking take more time or less time in the long run?
Presentation of a New Structure
- The teacher reads out short dialogues – not more than six or eight lines (if eight they should be short sentences).
- As the teacher reads, he or she writes a few key words/symbol on the blackboard to help students remember what the two speakers in the dialogue say to each other.
- The students reproduce the dialogue from these blackboard ‘cures’
- The students build the dialogue until it is memorized.
- Students practice in pairs.
- The teacher or students write the missing words on the blackboard or in their books.
- The teacher highlights the new structure by writing model sentences from the dialogues on the blackboard.
- The teacher checks meaning, from, use, and pronunciation.
e.g. set the scene with Lan and Jill. Teacher says, pointing to Tan and John in turn.
Jill: What’s the title of that novel?
Lan: Oliver Twist
Jill: Who’s it written by?
Lan: Charles Dickens
Jill: what is the title of that song?
Lan: Happy New Year
Jill: Who’s it written by?
|Teacher write on the blackboard
J. What’s the __________ ___________ ____________?
Lan: Oliver Twist
Jill: Who’s __________ ___________ ______?
Lan: Charles Dickens
Jill: what is the title _________ ___________ _______?
Lan: Happy New Year
Jill: Who’s it _________ _________?
Rub Out and Remember
Follow your trainer’s instructions
- The teacher puts a short dialogue on the blackboard – not more than six lines.
- The students practice saying it
- The teacher rubs out some of the words
- The students have to remember the rubbed-out words and keep practicing the dialogue
- The teacher eventually rubs out all the words
- If the students are weak, leave some key words or letters.
- The students repeat the subbed-out dialogue from memory
- The teacher then elicits the target structure and writes model sentences on the blackboard.
- The teacher checks meaning, form, use, and pronunciation.
Alice: I”d say that Samsung is the most reliable brand.
Interviewer: Which brand is the most expensive?
Alice: Well, Samsung is also the most expensive brand. I guess that”s why it”s the best.
Interviewer: Which brand do you think is the worst?
Alice: I think LG is the worst. I really can”t remember using any of their products that I liked.
Interviewer: And which brand is the most popular with young people?
Alice: That”s a difficult one to answer for me. I think that Sony is probably the most popular with young people.
Interviewer: One last question, Have you tried using any HP products?
Alice: No, I haven”t. Are they good?
Teacher writes this dialogue on the blackboard and rubs out more and more
Picture Story (Storytelling)
Follow your trainer’s instructions. Look at the checklist on the next page. Make sure you understand the statements to check while you are observing. What the demo and check your check list.
Discuss the steps with a partner.
- Tells a story containing the target language in at least half of the pictures
- Uses six to eight pictures, or blackboard drawing with mime.
- Elicits from the students as they tell the story
- Repeats the story, making the target language clear
- Elicits the target language from the students
- Checks meaning, use, from and pronunciation
- Can ask students to recall the whole story or parts of the story, but this is then practice and not presentation.
- Tries to elicit examples of the present perfect tense using. You have moved e.g. you have moved the blue book.
- Write the example sentences that the students have provided on the blackboard
- Checks meaning, form, use, and pronunciation
Another way of using realia is like this:
- Comes into the classroom with a briefcase of bag and asks students to guess what is in it
- Takes things out of the bag and presents the target language e.g. possessive pronouns: These are my glasses. They are mine (use contractions). These are my keys. They’re mine. This is his pen. It’s his.
- This is her book. It’s hers. This is our classroom. It’s ours. (point to another classroom). That is their classroom. It’s theirs.
- Elicit the target language from students by repeating and prompting e.g. You say: These are my glasses. Students say: They’re yours.
- Write the target language only on the blackboard.
- Checks meaning, form, use, and pronunciation.
Watch the demo using Pictures
Observers answer these questions.
Why does the “teacher” use pictures to present this target language?
What are the advantages of using pictures as a presentation for new language?
- Uses a picture that shows a situation e.g. a magazine picture, poster, a picture in a book or in Tiếng Anh.
- Elicits the target language from the students looking at the picture
- Uses the picture for both presentation and practice
Unit Five: TEACHING GRAMMAR: THE PRACTICE STAGE
Goals: to help you teach the Practice Stage, including 4 techniques for drilling and 4 techniques for further controlled practice.
The purpose of the Practice Stage
- Read the following text
The first part of the practice stage is controlled practice. This is usually a drill. The teacher stand at the front of the class, work with the whole class, and controls what they say.
The second part of the practice stage is less controlled. It is usually pair work or group work. The students work on their own with the cures that the teacher gives them. The teacher moves from group to group helping them.
During the practice stage, students work in pairs or groups for 3 reasons.
- Participation: to give everyone in the class a lot more practice time.
- Independence: to teach students to learn from each other without the teacher always being there.
- Confidence: to encourage quieter students who don’t usually like speaking in front of the whole class.
Practice is not only repetition. In the practice stage, students don’t just repeat what the teacher says because repetition thinking is not real learning. Instead students use cues to make sentences for themselves.
Cures are used for two reasons.
- To help MEMORY: to get students to think for themselves and therefore remember better.
- To build CONFIDENCE: to get students to formulate as many sentences as they want from a basic pattern with confidence.
The teacher does a lot of correction in the practice stage. If the target language is new, students will make a lot of mistakes with it. If the students don’t make any mistakes, then they haven’t learned anything new. Mistakes are a positive thing because they are a sign of progress.
The aim of the practice stage is to get the students to say the new language accurately through a process of controlled to less controlled activities.
- Answer the questions:
- What is the aim of the practice stage?
- Give three reasons for working in groups or pairs.
- Why does the teacher need to do a lot of correction in the practice stage?
- Is repetition the same as practice? Why and why not?
||The 1 part
||The 2 part
- The teacher moves around to help students
- Students can make sentences for themselves using cues
- The teacher stands in front of the class to work with the students
- The teacher controls what students say
- Students learn from each other without the teacher
- Drill can be done at this stage
- Students work in groups or pairs
What is a Good Drill?
Instructions: Look up any of the following words you don’t know in a dictionary.
|An utterance random (adj) (to) formulate an exchange (to) be consistent a cue
Read each pair of sentences about drills and tick the one that you think is better.
- __ a drill is for accuracy practice so ‘meaning’ is not important.
__a drill should be meaningful something people in the real world would say.
- __a drill should be consistent and use the same grammatical pattern for all the utterances
__a drill should change the grammatical pattern of the utterances as much as possible so students don’t get bored.
- __A drill should have a topic (e.g. Places in Huế; The Weather, etc) so that all cues and utterances belong together.
__A drill should have random cues to produce as many different utterances for as many different situations as possible.
- __ A drill should have between 6-8 cues.
__A drill should have one cue for every students in the class.
- __ An exchange can only be a question and an answer.
__An exchange isn’t only a question and an answer, it can be any type of statement and a response.
- __ By the end of the drills, students should formulate the utterance for themselves from a cue.
__in a drill students should repeat every model sentences after the teacher.
- __ A drill should move from Teacher/Whole Class, to open pairs, to close pairs.
__ A drill should be Teacher/Whole Class “controlled” activity throughout.
Step of a Drill
Watch the demo and tick the steps. After watching, fill in the aims of each step.
|Run though the vocabulary
||Show the picture
Ask the new words
Say the whole sentences
All of the cues
|To introduce new words/ideas of the drill
To be sure students know the words
|Show the first cue and say utterance three times
||To give a model
|Get students to repeat what you’re said CHORALLY, 2 or 3 times
||To get students familiar with the sentences
|Call on 2 or 3 students to repeat it INDIVIDUALLY, correct
||Give a chance for students to work together
|Repeat steps 2-4 for the second cue (if necessary)
|Work though the rest of the cue: new cue, new students
||Give a chance for the individual practice
|Repeat step 2-6 for the second part of the exchange (if necessary)
||Give model for responses
|Demonstrate how to put the exchange together using a good student.
T(says the utterance) S1: respond.
|Get 3 or 4 pairs to demonstrate the exchange in OPEN PAIRS
||To show how students works in pairs
|Stick all the cues on the board
||Everyone can see the cues and practice
|Get students to practice all the exchanges in CLOSED PAIRS
||To give the students opportunities to practice
|Monitor and correct
||Go around the class
||To help students say the sentences correctly.
Further Controlled Practice Techniques
Group1: Chain Game
- Get into groups of 8. You join by the number fourth, turn around, work with the four behind you.
- In this group, you’re number 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. What’s your number (5) and yours (2).
- Listen to my sentence “there is a hotel near my house.”
- Who’s number 1 in this group? Number 1 says my sentence. (S1: there’s hotel near my house)
- Who’s number 2? Number 2, repeat what students 1 has said and add to it like this: There is a hotel near my house and a school. (S2: There’s a hotel near my house and a school).
- Student 3, repeat what students 1 and 3 have said and then ad to it (S3: there is a hotel near my house, and a school, and a river).
- Continue around the circle, each student repeating then adding something new.
- Go around the circle twice. How many things will you have to remember in the end (16).
Group 2: Guessing Game
Look at the sentence on the board
|I am going to the …………………………
- Take a piece of paper. Show me your paper. Copy the sentence but fill in the fap with a place. Tell me some places. (Ss: temple, movie theater, lake, park, etc.)
- [The teacher also copies the sentence onto a piece of paper and fills in ‘restaurant’].
- Ask me another question (S2: Are you going to the park? T: No, I am not).
- [The teacher elicits yes/no questions from the class until someone ask Are you going to a restaurant? T: Yes, I am.]
- To the students who guesses correctly. Come to the front. Guess his or her sentences. Can you ask “Where are you going? (No) How must your questions begin? Are you going to…?
- [After the student’s sentence has been guessed] Now get into group of 4 or 8. You four, turn round. Work with the students behind you. You start [chooses a student to start in each group]. Guess his/her sentence. Begin.
Group 3: Find Someone Who
Start a clean page in your exercise books. Copy this.
|Find someone who is going to….
|….stay at home
|….visit an aunt or an uncle
|….visit a new city
|…..stay in a hotel
|….camp in the mountains
|….stay in a tent
- Think about the summer holidays. Are you going to stay at home? (S1: Yes….S2: No)
- Make me a question with “stay at home’ (Ss: Are you going to stay at home?)
- And the next question (S1: are you going to visit a new city?)
- You, stay in a hotel (S2: Are you going to stay in a hotel?)
- [the teacher goes through all the cues in the same way]
- What’s your name? (S2: Hung) [the teacher fills in Hung’s name on the board in the Nme column next to ‘stay at home’
- You have to find someone who is going to do each of these things. How many names are you going to find all together? (6)
- You cannot fill someone’s name more than once. So, can I put Hung’s name again here? [points to visit a new city] (No)
- The first one with all the names is the winner.
- Work in group of 8. You four turn around. Work with the four behind you.
- [when most of them have finished] good. Stop there. Tell me about some of the people you have found. (S1: Dao’s going to go camping…etc.)
Group 4: Noughts and Crosses
- Do you remember this game? [The teacher draw a ca-ro board on the board]
- The English version is called Nought and Crosses. It looks like this.
- How can you win? (Ss: three in a row) Across? (Ss: Yes) Down (Ss: Yes) Like this? [The teacher draws a diagonal line] (Ss: Yes) Like this [The teacher draws a diagonal line] (Ss: Yes)
- We’re going to play it with these words.
|Walk to school
||Drive a bus
||Travel by bus
|Wait fro a train
||Ride a bicycle
||Play a game
|Go by plan
||Drive a car
- [the teacher point to ‘walk to school’] make a sentence using “I’m walking…” (Ss: I’m walking to school)
- Practice making sentences with your partner. Take it in turns.
- Now, two teams. You’re noughts and you’re crosses. Who are you (S1: noughts) And you? (S2: crosses).
- Noughts begin. Choose a word, make a sentence. (S1: I am riding a bicycle)
- Good [the teacher puts an o in the ‘ride a bicycle’s square] crosses, your turn. (S2: I am riding a motorbike) good! [the teacher puts a x in the ride a motorbike’s square]
- [the two teams continue to make sentences until one team wins]
- [the teacher puts the class into pairs]. Noughts, crosses: noughts crosses,….(etc). Hands up noughts? Copy the table in your books. Hand up crosses? Don’t coy! Crosses begin. Play the game again with your paper.
Group 5: Napped Dialogue:
- Look at this [the teacher puts the Mapped Dialogue on the board]
- Where is he (in Cân Thơ) where’s she (Hà Nội)
- He asks a question about the weather in Hà Nội. what does he ask? (what’s the weather like in Hà Nội) what des she reply? (It’s cold). Now she asks the weather in Cần thơ. What does she ask? (what’s the weather like in Cần thơ) Anhd what does he reply? (It’s hot!). Good! Practice that with your partner.
- What does he then ask her? (What kind of weather do you like?) What does she reply? (I like hot weather) so what does he say? (Come to Cantho!)
- Who can do the whole thing [the teacher chooses 2 students to model the whole dialogue]
- Now practice in pairs again.
- TEACHING GRAMMAER: THE PRODUCTION STAGE
Objective: to get you to recognize the differences and similarities between practice and production. To help you use three techniques for production in your real context.
To help you anticipate possible problems with production and find solutions to these problems.
Practice and Production
Brainstorm the differences and similarity between practice and production and fill in the table below:
|Control (control what students say, how they say the idea
|Role of the teacher
|Language items students should use
Instructions: Read the following text and check your answer
Practice and Production:
- The practice stage is more controlled than the production stage. Sometimes the productions stage is called ‘free practice’
- The teacher uses direct correction during practice and indirect (or delayed) corrections during production.
- The teacher gives more cues in the practice stage than in the production stage. Students have to make their sentences and think for themselves more in the production.
- During practice, students concentrate on accuracy. During production, students concentrate on fluency.
- During practice, the teacher’s role is to elicit accurate language form the students and give them lots of exercises so they can memorize the language or the new language patterns. During the production the teacher has two roles: ‘facilitator’, helping and encouraging students to do it by themselves, ‘analyzer’, seeing how well the objective has been achieved and what further practice the students needs.
- During practice, the target items are isolated and practiced on their own. During production, the target items are added to other structures, functions and vocabulary the students already know so the students don’t just speak in model sentences but in more natural conversation.
What is important is that the teacher constructs these activities in such as way that they promote communication and yet ensure that the new language occurs unprompted, naturally, and frequently in the context of other previously leaned language. The unguided manner in which the new language occurs is what distinguishes a production stage activity from a practice stage activity. In other word, the degree of linguistics guidance the students are given makes these stages different.
- The teacher has to set up activities carefully in both stage. Instructions must be clear, demonstrations or example provided and there should be a whole class run-through before group work or pair work begins.
- The teacher must consider mixed ability in the work arrangements.
- Practice in both stages happens simultaneously, students don’t wait until the teacher is standing by their table before they start talking. Everyone is talking at once.
- Practice and production are more important than presentation.
(Adapted from Hubbard, P, Jones, H, Thorton, B, & r Wheeler. 1983 A training Course for TEFL. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 191-192)
Techniques for Production
- To show you 4 techniques for production
- To get you to start thinking about how the activities are set up in class.
- Study the production techniques here
- Watch your trainer demonstrate the techniques.
- At the end of each demo, fill in the table. Write down the example that was demonstrated and what the teacher did to set up the activity.
The teacher gets the students to discuss and write down their ideas about a certain topic or situation. The teacher gives them a couple of example to get them going. Students get into groups. A secretary is chosen. The students dictate their ideas to the secretary. The students make a poster or the teacher finds some other way of ‘displaying’ their ideas. At the end of the lesson, students go and examine, correct or admire the work of other groups. This is called ‘exhibition’.
e.g. Target item: Simple Present Tense
The teacher asks the students to brainstorm their ideas on “A good Student” and what a good student does. The teacher gives them the beginning of a list. The students have to add their ideas to it. Students make posters and stick them on the walls of the classroom. Other groups read and correct any mistakes. When the teacher claps, the students move on to another poster.
|A good Student…
….always does his homework
….never comes to school late.
- Interview of Questionnaire:
This is usually a pair work activity but I can also be done in a cocktail or onion work arrangement.
In pairs students interview each other on a topic given by the teacher. They can fill in a form or they can write their partner’s answers in their books. The students must make up their own questions to ask, but this can be more or less controlled depending on how the questionnaire is designed. Students only write notes, not fill answers in the questionnaire so that the emphasis is on speaking.
Feedback can be speaking or writing: making sentences about the people they have interviewed.
e.g. Target item: Past Continuous Tense Questions and Statements
A: What were you doing yesterday at….?
B: I was….ing.
e.g. Target Item: Like [do]ing
A: What do you like doing at ….?
B: I like …ing.
Pairs are given role cards which describe the charater or role they have to assume. Details of a situation they have to act out or a problem the character they are playing Perform it for other pairs, groups or the whole class. For the teacher to manage a role-play successfully, he or she must think carefully about the preparation stages and get students to brainstorm, plan and rehearse what they will say before the role play is performed in front of others. The role play must be designed in such as way that the students can’t avoid using the target item.
e.g. Target item: Simple Past Questions and Answer
|Your house has been bugled. You have lost all your valuables. You have no receipts or proof of the value of house contents. You have to get a police report in order to make an insurance claim.
- Prepare a list of lost valuables and our estimate of their value. Add 2 or 3 items which you did not own but which will increase the value of your claim.
- Prepare in detail the story you will tell the police of how you discovered you had been burgled. Use these questions to help you:
- Where were you when the house was burgled?
- What time do you think it happened?
- How did the thieves get in?
- What did the house look like after the burglary?
- How did you feel?
- What did you lose?
- Who do you think did it?
- What do you want the police to do now?
||A house has been burgled. You have to go and interview the house owner to find out exactly what happened. Many people in this neighborhood make false claims to get the insurance money. You must be sure the house owner is telling the truth.
- Prepare a list of questions to find out from the house owner.
- When/where/how the burglary took place?
- What was stolen and what was the value of the items
- Why the house owner didn’t stop the burglars
- Prepare typical list of valuables that house owners usually make up in order to increase the value of their claim.
- Interview the house owner and question him or her closely so that you get the truth. Write up the report after the interview.
- Keep Talking Fluency Games
This type of fluency game is usually a topic-based board game which keeps students talking as long as possible. The teacher puts students into groups of 4 or 5, give them a dice and the game board, which is usually prepare in advance. Students throw the dice, move their counter the appropriate number of spaces on the board and then talk about the topic in the square they have landed on. The teacher can include rules such as “you have to talk about the topic you land on for a least one minute.” Or “alter talking about the topic, each member of the group must take it and turns to ask you a relevant questions.” These rules get students to keep talking longer.
e.g. Target Item: Simple Present Questions and Answer for Routines.
||At the weekend
||On work day
|What do you usually do?
||When you can’t
|In the evenings
||In the early mornings
||For anniversaries at your house
||For meal/at Tet
Overcoming Problems with Production
- Read the problem that you have been assigned
|You set up the production activity and tell the students to begin. Nothing happens. They sit in silence
||You make the best student in the group secretary for the brainstorming activity. He or she doesn’t listen or ask the others but continues to write his or her own ideas.
|All the strong students are on one table and can do the activity well. All the weak students are one another table and sit and do nothing.
||In an ‘exhibition’ of poster after a brainstorming activity you stick all the posters on the board. When you ask the students to come up and correct them, there is no room at the front for every to see or work.
|All the student are excited about doing the activity so they forgot about English and only speak Vietnamese.
||During an information gap activity
|It is the end of the lesson but the activity isn’t finished. You tell everyone to go. The students are disappointed because there has been no proper conclusion.
- Discuss the solutions to the problem you have read and write them as notes.
- Read the following text.
Production: Some problems and Solutions
Mix the group up
Remember to mix the group up so that not all the weak ones are on once table and all the strong ones on another table.
Students do not like to change groups – they want to stay with their friends. The first time you mix them up, they will be reluctant to move. They will complain and make faces. They will not cooperate and they may be rude to the students in the group who they think are not clever. It is your job to make them work together. The more you mix them up, the easier it will become. Students are creatures of habit. Once it becomes normal to work in different groups, they will accept it. So every lesson, put them into different groups. Look at the topic on Work Arrangements and get some ideas from there.
Don’t make the best students the secretary
If you make the best student a secretary, he or she will do all the writing for the group without listening to their ideas. The others will sit back and let him or her do it. Make someone who is not too good and not too week the secretary. This way to others have to talk and give their ideas to the secretary. If the secretary cannot spell a word, then the others must tell him or her how to spell it. This way you are encouraging student-to-student correction. (Note: If the secretary is too week, the others will get frustrated and give up).
Use all 4 Walls:
If you are having a poster exhibition at the end of the production, don’t stick all the posters on the same wall. With 50 students in the class there just isn’t enough room for everyone to stand up and go and look at the posters tat their friends have done. However, if you remember to use 4 walls to stick up the posters, the students will have enough room. You can give them a signal (clap your hands) which means “Everyone moves around onto the next poster.”
Bring thins to a conclusion
Don’t just let the students go home without three being a proper end to the production. Tell them to all sit down again. Have a moment of silence. Then ask them a question, take a vote, make a comment deal with corrections (e.g. vocabulary that they all need it) – something which brings the lesson to a conclusion.
“Which is the best poster? Hands up for poster number one 1…etc.”
“Who’s the winner? “Who’s finished first? “Who has the most points? Etc.”
“How many sentences do you have? What are they?”
“Here are some new words that you all wanted…”
- Compare the ideas in the text with your solutions/
- Make a poster with all the solutions.
- Copy the best solutions in your own table below.
|You set up the production activity and tell the students to begin. Nothing happens. They sit in silence.
||-check questions and instructions.
-Give more cues
-Give examples and models
|All the strong students are on one table and can do the activities well. All the week students are on another table and sit and do nothing.
||-Mix strong students and weal students together.
|All the students are excited about doing the activity so they forget about English and only speak in Vietnamese.
||-Move around and reminds students to use English.
-Explain why teacher wants students to use English.
-Give some cues
-Teacher speaks English to the students.
|It is the end of the lesson but the activity is not finished. You tell everyone to go. The students are disappointed because there has been no proper conclusion.
||-Give indirect correction.
-Bring things to a conclusion.
-Take a vote: “who agrees with this ideas?”
|You make the best student in the group the secretary for a brainstorming activity. He or she doesn’t listen or ask the others but continues to write his or her own ideas.
||-Never choose a very good student. Do the task by herself.
|In an ‘exhibition’ of posters after a brainstorming activity, you stick all the posters on the board. When you ask the students to come up and correct them, there is no room at the front for everyone to se or work.
||Use all 4 walls to stick all posters.
|During an information gap activity, none of the pairs are talking or asking questions they’re copying each other’s information. Onto their paper in silence.
||-Move around to remind students to work in pairs, to speak up…
-Explain the purpose of this activity.